One of the brightest examples of success in the special equipment market is the FIAT-ALLIS group, which appeared as a result of the merger of two major manufacturers of agricultural and special equipment: the corresponding division of the "all-Italian octopus" FIAT and the American company Allis Chalmers, which has been producing equipment for builders and farmers for almost half a century. Consultation and strategy development for this giant group began in the late 1960s and lasted for quite some time until the final merger agreement was signed on January 4, 1974. Everything was planned, right down to the strategic development plan for the 1980s. As a result of the signing of the agreement, FIAT received 77% of the shares of the established company, Allis Chalmers - only 23%. The interest was directly related to the contribution of each of the firms to the newly formed group. As for the strategy of the new company, it sounded something like this: "We have the appropriate equipment for solving any problem." New design bureaus were created, and design problems were solved, as a rule, "on the side" - it was much cheaper and more efficient. The first design offices and production facilities were located in the United States of America, Brazil, England and Italy.
At the very beginning of its activity, FIAT-ALLIS Corporation presented to the market more than 50 (!) Units of special equipment - from a tiny bulldozer to a 500-strong loader. The production program included bulldozers, wheel and track loaders and excavators, graders, scrapers and other equipment. Note that this list does not include agricultural machinery, that is, there has been some re-profiling of products. But we specially provide photos of wheeled agricultural tractors of both companies, which they produced just before the merger. The FIAT-ALLIS management acted very competently, having built a whole dealer network and complexes of branded repair shops before launching their products, so buyers in 126 countries expressed their desire to buy FIAT-ALLIS cars already in 1976. Of course, these were transport companies of various sizes, and not separate construction teams. It was a triumph. Especially many cars of the new company were in demand in African countries, where large-scale construction was underway. It is impossible to describe all the products of the machine-building monster, therefore we will focus only on some models of FIAT-ALLIS wheeled vehicles.
The 345-B loader takes the first place in the company's production program - it is the lightest FIAT-ALLIS loader of that time. Six easily removable loading devices provided the machine with a certain versatility. The largest bucket handled 1.3 m3 of loading material. Each attachment was replaced in 20 minutes thanks to special attachment points. Modifications of loaders with a cab were created for working on dusty soils and without a cab. The cab version was equipped with air conditioning with powerful filters, which provided the driver with clean and fresh air at any outside temperature. The cab was created taking into account the current ergonomic standards for special equipment, so it was convenient and easy to work with the loader.
Instead of swivel wheels (as previously on tractors of both firms), a hydraulic articulation was used between the axles. The maximum steering angle of the steering axle was 80 °. The horizontal position of the cab was maintained even on a slope of 22 ° due to the special rear axle design - under the engine. The drive wheels with planetary gearboxes ensured, on the one hand, reliability and smooth running, and on the other, increased the torque. A four-cylinder diesel engine with a working volume of 4 liters developed a power of 76 hp; a 150-hp power unit could be supplied by special order. The engine was started with the usual starter - simple and convenient.
Models 545-B, 605-B and 645-B occupied the middle part of the company's production line and were based on one platform. The bucket loaders were equipped with buckets with a maximum volume of 2.7 m3. The customer had two 6-cylinder engines, both turbocharged, and an automatic transmission, but the automatic only worked between 1st ... 2nd and 3rd ... 4th gears. Such is the selectivity. All four wheels are driven, with planetary gearboxes in the wheel hubs. The space frame could be folded at 45 ° to each side by hydraulic articulation. This family of loaders, less versatile, was used mainly on construction sites. As for the driver, he worked in the same comfortable conditions as on the “kid” loader.
The largest FIAT-ALLIS loader is model 945-B. By the way, in the photo you can see that the soil is being loaded onto the DIAMOND REO truck. Now, the average person is just above the front fender of this truck. Can you imagine what the dimensions of a loader are? Four-wheel drive transmission, diesel engine with turbocharging, direct fuel injection, 13.8 liters displacement, 335 hp. and 45 ° rotation of the front axle in each direction make it maneuverable and easy to use. With a five-cubic loading bucket, the truck can be loaded one time. The 3760 base and 2440 mm track make this giant very stable even in corners. The customer could choose tires directly at the factory or according to a customized finishing card. It was even possible to supply a loader with snow-wheel chains, because with such power and operating conditions slipping is inevitable. Therefore, the entire machine is surrounded by protective rails.
Produced FIAT-ALLIS and wheeled excavators, because this type of construction equipment cannot be replaced by anything. The FE 18R model was equipped with a 134 hp diesel engine. and a bucket of 0.72 m3, which lifted a load weighing 15,800 kg to a height of 8234 mm from a depth of 5894 mm. As seen in the picture, dual wheels are installed on both axles. At the request of the customer, the excavator could be all-wheel drive or with one driving axle. The customer also chose the length of the boom, which was three sizes. As an option, a choice of tires was offered, up to single wide-profile tires. Italians were engaged in the design of the excavator, and I must say that for those years it turned out to be very cute.
The firm also designed and manufactured scrapers, single-engine and twin-engine. Model 262-B was built according to a twin-engine scheme (tractor and bucket) with a total power of 520 hp. Despite its old-fashioned appearance, this rather powerful scraper was very popular due to its specific indicators.
The working volume of the bucket (“heaped”) was 16.1 m3, the lifting capacity was 22 860 kg. The bucket penetrated into the ground to a depth of 330 mm and loaded it in just a few minutes, everything depended on the hardness of the soil and the design of the replaceable knives.
In conclusion, a few words about wheel graders, which appeared on the market simultaneously with the rest of FIAT-ALLIS equipment. As an example, we have chosen the model 65 - the lightest grader in the group's program. Its own gross weight was 5116 kg, and the mass of the captured soil (without slipping) was 2763 kg. The minimum speed is 3.6 km / h. This model of the grader did not have a cab, however, for work on small construction sites and with small volumes of soil, the grader was indispensable. The control of units and assemblies of FIAT-ALLIS machines was carried out using patented hydraulic systems with filters, which is quite rare.