International Harvester (IH) is an American manufacturer of agricultural machinery and trucks, founded in 1902 by the merger of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and the Deering Harvester Company. Until the late 1970s, a leading manufacturer of agricultural machinery, in 1979 the company went bankrupt, which resulted in the actual liquidation of the company. In 1984, IH shareholders sold the production of agricultural machinery to Tenneco, which soon closed production and liquidated the IH brand. The owners of what was left of IH - the production of buses and trucks under the International brand - in 1986 changed the name of the company to Navistar International.
In 1834, inventor Cyrus McCormick (1809-1884) patented the McCormick thresher. In 1847, the McCormick family opened their agricultural machinery manufacturing facility in Chicago. Under the leadership of his son, inventor Cyrus Jr., the company successfully developed a distribution network and absorbed competitors; after another merger in 1902, it changed its signboard to International Harvester.
Among the first models of the combined firm were the Traction Truck, a gasoline-powered truck (tractor) designed for the rural user; production of light pickups, SUVs and medium trucks under the International brand continued until the liquidation of the company.
In December 1909, the New York Air-Brake Co. was acquired. in Lyubertsy, which the company owned until 1924, after which the plant passed to the state and was renamed into the Lyubertsy plant of agricultural machinery named after A.V. Ukhtomsky.
In 1915, IH introduced the first line of Mogul and Titan tractors with different engine power. With the emergence of a strong competitor, Fordson, IH introduced its third line to the market, the Farmall small tractor-tricycle. Three-wheeled tractors have occupied their niche in the processing of corn and cotton.
In 1932, the first diesel tractor with an auxiliary gasoline starting engine was produced.
Beginning in 1939, Raymond Lowy was in charge of the external design of the tractors, and the model range was renamed to simple letter designations, "growing" in alphabetical order. Models from the late 1930s were only replaced by more modern ones in the late 1950s.
During World War II, the IH produced the Garand rifle in large quantities.
In 1973, IH produced the 5 millionth tractor. The end of the 1970s became profitable for the company, but for this it had to collect debts. In 1979, after announcing that the president of the company would receive a $ 1.8 million bonus, IH workers went on strike for six months. The company lost $ 600 million and never recovered from the losses. In November 1984, its core, International Harvester proper, was sold to Tenneco, which completely ceased production of tractors by mid-1985.